Deep Inside a Cavern

Deep Inside a Cavern lesson plan

How do stalactites and stalagmites grow hundreds of feet inside the Earth? Explore an original cave, constructed inside a box.

  • 1.

    Caving is an adventure for spelunkers who explore caverns around the world! Research how subterranean caves were formed. You’ll find that rainwater containing carbonic acid erodes limestone to form caverns filled with beautiful stalactites and stalagmites. Find out how modern technology makes it possible to find hidden caves. Learn about amazing cave features such as rivers, caverns, and creatures (think bats and beyond). Get ready to climb deep into your own imaginary cave.

  • 2.

    Here are some ideas to get your cave started. Use your own imagination, too. Using Crayola® Colored Pencils, draw the entrance to your cave on the bottom of a shoe box. Cut out the opening with Crayola Scissors.

  • 3.

    Use Crayola Model Magic to cover the area around the cave entrance. To create rock- or vegetation-like colors of Model Magic, rub color from a Crayola Washable Marker onto white modeling compound. Knead, adding more marker color until you get the shade you want. Flatten the Model Magic and press it onto the box. Attach it to the box with Crayola School Glue. Air-dry the entrance.

  • 4.

    Color the inside of your box and its lid to resemble the inside of a cave.

  • 5.

    Using Model Magic and your imagination, form stalactites, stalagmites, and other cave formations. Vary colors of the formations, just like in a real cave. Glue them to the roof and floor of your cave. Air-dry the formations.

  • 6.

    Glue the lid to the top of the box to seal your cave. Air-dry before displaying.


  • Students describe how different types of caves and their physical features were formed. They distinguish between stalactites and stalagmites (stalactites grow down from the roof of a cave and stalagmites grow up from the floor).
  • Students learn about the scientific and recreational exploration of caves and build vocabulary with words such as cavers and spelunkers.
  • Students use a shoe box to create a realistic diorama of a cavern that contains stalactites and stalagmites.


  • Find out what animals live in caves. Learn how they move around in darkness, what they eat, and why they live in cave habitats. Construct a chart or add them to your diorama to show your findings.
  • Research how human beings in the past used caves for shelter and safety.
  • Research prehistoric cave art. Draw symbols similar to the art found in these subterranean caverns.
  • Discover how technology, such as GPS devices and satellite photos, has advanced the field of caving.